Published Sources on Australian Circus

Articles Australian circus fiction View sources

Adams, M. P., 1910, How the Circus Comes to Town, Lone Hand, 1 April.

FitzGerald, J.D., 1911, Bill Us Big, The Lone Hand, Vol IX No 49, May, pp 46-54.

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Articles Australian circus View sources

Anon., 1866, Portrait of James Cooke: Circus Artist, Illustrated Sydney News, 16 March.

Anon., 1874, The Grand United Circus, Australian Town and Country Journal, 11 July.

Anon., 1874, The Grand United Circus, Australian Town and Country Journal, 11 Jul, p.64.

Anon., 1875, Ashton's Circus: Miss Annie Ashton, Australian Town & Country Journal, 2 January.

Anon., 1882, Circus Life, Imperial Review, Oct, no 8, pp.74-7.

Anon., 1884, Show Business, Imperial Review, Jul, pp.32-5.

Anon., 1888, Burton's Circus, Imperial Review, Jan, pp.50-3.

Anon., 1892, The Circus, Imperial Review, Mar, pp.71-2.

Anon., 1892, The Circus, Imperial Review, March, pp 71-2.

Anon., 1893, FitzGerald Brothers' Gigantic Circus and Menagerie, Bulletin, 29 May.

Anon., 1893, FitzGerald Brothers' Monster Australian Circus and Menagerie, Bulletin, 20 May.

Anon., 1901, Circus Life in Australia, Australasian Stage Annual, pp.55-6.

Anon., 1925, Australia's Biggest Circus, Billboard, 7 November.

Anon., 1927, Circus History: Fifty Years on Tour, West Australian, 24 August.

Anon., 1931, Circus Romance: Mr Phillip Wirth's Career, West Australian, 9 September.

Anon., 1950, Wirth of the Circus: The Son of a Hard Hitting Father, People, 5 July, pp 23-25.

Anon., 1951, Tent Show Nomads, Pix, 14 July.

Anon., 1952, Queen of the Flying Ashtons, People, 4 June, pp 24-27.

Anon., 1953, Saga of the Circus, People, 23 April, pp 15-22.

Anon., 1955, An Interview with Norman St Leon, Muswellbrook Chronicle, 18 Feb, p.15.

Anon., 1962, Old Showies: Adrian St Leon, Outdoor Showman, April, pp 21-22.

Anon., 1974, Blondin, Australian Town & Country Journal, 14 August.

Donaghy, B., 1990, Circus Kids: Learning on the Move, Sydney Morning Herald, 9 July.

Fogarty, J.T., 1963, Letter to editor, Bulletin, 10 August, p.35.

Frederickson, C., 1949, Circus Memories, Outdoor Showman, February-March.

Grieg, A.W., 1930, When the Circus Came to Town, in Argus, Melbourne, 8 June.

Higham, C., 1963, Death of a circus? Bulletin, 27 July, pp 17-19

Jameson, N., 1988, For the Ashtons, its Home Sweet Big Top, Newcastle Morning Herald, 14 May.

Jones, F.M., 1920, Circus Stars & Stories: A Forty Years Retrospect, in Theatre, 1 April.

Leon-Martin, L., 1937, Con Colleano, Le Don Juan due Fil de Fer [The Don Juan of the Tightwire], Paris Soir, 7 July.

Locust, 1905, Some Elephants & Fitzgerald's Circus, Bulletin, 20 April , page 22.

Malouf, D., 2003, Made in England: Australia's British Inheritance, in Quarterly Essay, No 12, pp.1-67.

Onlooker, 1907, 1908, "Spangles & Sawdust: A Chronicle of Colonial Circus Life", in Theatre, issues of December 1907, & January-August, October & December 1908.

Salmon, M., 1904, An Old Time Circus, Australian Town and Country Journal, 3 Aug, p. 34.

Sissons, D.C.S., 1999, Japanese Acrobatic Troupes in Australasia 1867-1900, Australasian Drama Studies, Oct, vol. 35, pp. 73-108.

St Leon, M., 1983, World Famous Equestrienne: Australia's May Wirth, This Australia, Vol 2, No. 4, Spring, pp 57-61.

St Leon, M., 1986, The Circus in the Context of Australia's Regional, Social & Cultural History, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol 72, Part 3, December, pp 204-225.

St Leon, M., 1986/7, The Great Con Colleano, This Australia, Vol 6, No 1, Summer, pp 13-17.

St Leon, M., 1987, Circus or Bust, Lowdown: Youth Performing Arts in Australia, Vol 9 No 4, August, pp 47-55

St Leon, M., 1999, Noms d'Arena, Australasian Drama Studies, Oct, no.35, pp. 155-71.

Stapleton, J., 1990, Behind the Facade of the Circus Folk, Sydney Morning Herald, 3 January.

Tait, P., 1999, Circus Bodies as Theatre Animals, Australasian Drama Studies, Oct, no. 35, pp. 129-44.

Te Whero, 1905, A Morning in a Circus Tent: Behind the Scenes at FitzGerald's Show, Sydney Mail, 26 April, page 1056.

Testro, R., 1939, Memories of Old-Time Circus Days, in The Argus Weekend Magazine, The Argus, 9 Sep, p.10 c.2.

Urquhart, J., 1931, Our First Circus: Its Rise and Fall, Sydney Morning Herald, 20 Jun, p.9 c.7.

Wagner, L., 1980, Spotlight Circus Oz, Theatre Australia, Vol 4 No 11, June, pp 10-11.

Weiner, A., 1975, The Short Unhappy Career of Luigi Dalle Case, Educational Theatre Journal, vol 27, pp. 77-84.V Wirth, G., 1926, Round the World with a Circus - Mr George Wirth Writes his Reminiscences, New Zealand Free Lance, 13 January.

Wirth, G., 1933, Under the Big Top: The Life Story of George Wirth, Circus Proprietor. Life, 15 March 1933, p.407.

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Articles American circus View sources

Davis, J., 1993, Spectacles of South Asia at the American circus 1890-1940. Visual Anthropology 6: 121-138.

Gossard, S., 1990, Frank Gardner & The Great Leapers, in Bandwagon, July-August.

King, F., 1914, Ring & Stage are Close Kin, in Billboard, 19 December.

Shettel, J. W., 1931, The Great International Circus in Australia, in The Circus Scrap Book, July, No 11, Jersey City, NJ.

Shettel, J.W., 1940, Circus Without Horses by, The White Tops, August-September.

Sturtevant, C. G., 1927, Foreign Tours of American Circuses, The Billboard, 2 Jul, p.41.

Sturtevant, C.G., 1931, James Robinson - The Equestrian King, in The White Tops, June.

Sturtevant, C.G., 1940, When the American Circus went Abroad, in The White Tops, December 1939 - January 1940.

Thayer, S., 1974, One Sheet, Bandwagon, Jan-Feb, vol xviii, no. 1, p. 22.

Thayer, S., 1989, James Hunter, The Bareback Rider, Bandwagon, Sep-Oct, vol xxxiii, no. 5, pp. 36-7.

Van Wyck, S.R., 1938, The Origin of Rowe's Original California Circus, in The White Tops, December 1937 - January 1938.

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Articles British circus View sources

Anon., 1875, Circus Life in the Old World: Andrew Ducrow, The Famous Equestrian, New York Clipper, 5 Jun, p.76.

Anon., 1875a, Old London Fairs, New York Clipper, 7 Aug, p.148.

Anon., 1875b, Old London Fairs, New York Clipper, 14 Aug, p.156.

Anon., 1875c, Old London Fairs, New York Clipper, 11 Sep, p.172.

Anon., 1881, Training a Circus Rider, New York Times, 17 Feb, p.3.

Speaight, G., 1978, Some Comic Circus Entrees, Theatre Notebook, vol xxxii, pp. 24-7.

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Articles - Circus music View sources

Anon., 1923, One Who Was There, The Australasian Bandsman, 26 Oct, p.13.

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Articles - Other View sources

Jones, A., 1995, Our Forgotten Singers: The Howson Family, Opera Australasia, Jul, pp.7, 10.

Levine, L.W., 1992, The folklore of industrial society: Popular culture & its audiences. American Historical Review Vol 97 No 5. December pp.1369-1399.

Schoeman, K., 1985, An Early Circus Company: Signor Dalle Case & his Visit to Bloemfontein, Africana Notes and News, 26 Dec, no. 8.

Carmeli, Y., 1999, Mimicry, Display and Play of the Real: A Trainer and Big Cats in a Circus Den, Australasian Drama Studies, Oct, no.35, pp. 109-19.

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Books - American circus history View sources

Anon., 1879, Around the World in Three Years, Cooper, Bailey and Co.

Bradna, F., 1953, The Big Top: My Forty Years with the Greatest Show on Earth, London: Hamilton.

Crowley, W.G., 1877, The Australian Tour of Cooper, Bailey & Co's Great International Allied Shows, Brisbane, Qld. Brisbane: Thorne & Greenwell.

Culhane, J., 1990, The American Circus: An Illustrated History, New York: Henry Holt & Company.

Dressler, A. [ed], 1926, California's Pioneer Circus, Joseph Andrew Rowe, Founder. Memoirs and Personal Correspondence Relative to the Circus Business Through the Gold Country in the 1850s, San Francisco: H. S. Crocker.

Durant, J. and A., 1967, Pictorial History of the American Circus, New York: A. S. Barnes and Co.

Hoh, L. G. & Rough, W. H., 1990, Step Right Up! The Adventure of Circus in America, White Hall, Virginia: Betterway Publications Inc


Kirk, R., 1972, Circus Heroes & Heroines , New Jersey: Hammond Inc.

May, E.C., 1963, The Circus From Rome to Ringling, New York: Dover Publications Inc.

Middleton, G., 1913, Circus Memoirs, Los Angelos: G Rice & Sons.

Plowden, G., 1950, Circus, New York: Sterling Publishing Company.

Robinson, J.DeM., 1936, The Circus Lady. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.

Saxon, A.H., 1989, P.T, Barnum: The Legend & The Man, New York, Columbia University Press.

Sutton, F., 1971, The Big Show: A History of the Circus, Doubleday, New York.

Taylor, R.L., 1956, Centre Ring: The People of the Circus, Doubleday, New York.

Thayer, S., 1976, Annals of the American Circus. Volume I. 1793-1829, Seattle: Dauven and Thayer.

Thayer, S., 1986, Annals of the American Circus. Volume II.. 1830 - 1847, Seattle: The Author.

Thayer, S., 1992, Annals of the American Circus, Volume III: 1848-1860, Seattle, WA: Dauven & Thayer.

Vail, R. W. G., 1934, Random Notes on the History of the Early American Circus, Worcester, Massachusetts: American Antiquarian Society


Wilson, D., 1932, Where The World Folds Up At Night , New York: D Appleton & Co.

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Books - American entertainment history View sources

Brown, T. A., 1870, History of the American Stage: Containing Biographical Entries of Nearly Every Member of the Profession that has Appeared on the American Stage, from 1733 to 1870, New York: Dick and Fitzgerald.

Harley, M., 1921, Adventures In The Arts, New York: Boni & Liveright.

Jennings, J.J., 1883, Theatrical and Circus Life; or Secrets of the Stage, Green Room and Sawdust Arena. Mansfield, Ohio: Mansfield Union Publishing Co.

Laurie Jnr, J., 1953, Vaudeville: From the Honky Tonks to The Palace , New York: Henry Holt & Co.

MacMinn, G.R., 1941, The Theatre of The Golden Era in California, Idaho: Caxton Caldwell.

Odell, G. C., Annals of the New York Stage, Fifteen Volumes, New York: Columbia University Press, 1927-49.

Pierce, P., [ed], 1967, WC Fields: His Follies & Fortunes, New York: St Martins Press.

Potts, E. D. & Potts, A., 1974, Young America and Australian Gold: America and the Gold Rush of the 1850s, Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.

Schoberlin, M., 1941, From Castles to Footlights; A Biography of the Pikes Peak Theatre 1859-76, Denver, Colorado: The Old West Publishing Company.

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Books Australian circus fiction View sources

Prichard, K.S., 1988, Haxby's Circus, Sirius paperback edition, Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

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Books - Australian circus history View sources

Broome, R. with Jackomos, A., 1998, Sideshow Alley, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

Cannon, J. with St Leon, M., 1997, Take a Drum and Beat It: The Story of the Astonishing Ashtons, 1848-1990s. Sydney: Tytherleigh Press.

Fernandez, N., 1971, Circus Saga: Ashton's, Sydney: Ashton's Circus.

Greaves, G., 1980, The Circus Comes to Town, Nostalgia of Australian Big Tops, Reed, Sydney.

Lord, F.A., 1965, Little Big Top, Adelaide: Rigby.

Ramsland, J. with St Leon, M., 1994, Children of the Circus: The Australian Experience, Springwood, New South Wales: Butterfly Books.

St Leon, M. & Waites, J., 1988, Entertaining the Outback, Oz Circus 1833-1924, New Theatre Australia, No 6, July-August, pp 11-15.

St Leon, M., 1918, An Australian Circus: The Origins of Ashton's Circus & A Brief Record of its Travels in Australia until 1918, Sydney: The Author., Privately prepared manuscript,.

St Leon, M., 1981, The Circus in Australia, 1842-1921, Sydney: The author.

St Leon, M., 1983, Spangles and Sawdust: The Circus in Australia, Melbourne: Greenhouse Publications Pty Limited.

St Leon, M., 1984, Australian Circus Reminiscences, Sydney: The author.

St Leon, M., 1985, Australian Circus Sources, Sydney: The author.

St Leon, M., 1990, The Silver Road, The Life of Mervyn King, Circus Man, Springwood: Butterfly Books.

St Leon, M., 1993, The Wizard of the Wire: The Story of Con Colleano, Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.

Webber, K. [ed.], 1996, Circus! The Jandaschewsky Story, Sydney: Powerhouse Publishing.

Wirth, P., c1930, A Lifetime with An Australian Circus, Melbourne: Troedel & Cooper.

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Books - Australian culture View sources

Cumes, J. W. C., 1979, Their Chastity was Not Too Rigid: Leisure Times in Early Australia, Melbourne and Sydney: Longman Cheshire Reed.

Hughes, J. [ed.], 1989, Australian Words and Their Origins, Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Pringle, J.D., 1958, Australian Accent, London: Chatto & Windus

Sorenson, E. S., 1984, Life in the Australian Backblocks, Sydney: Currey O'Neil.

Sprod, D., 1977, Victorian and Edwardian Hobart from Old Photographs, Sydney: John Ferguson.

Waterhouse, R., 1995, Private Pleasures, Public Leisure: A History of Australian Popular Culture Since 1788, South Melbourne: Longman Australia Pty Ltd.

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Books - Australian entertainment history View sources

Bagot, A., 1965, Coppin the Great: Father of the Australian Theatre, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

Brisbane, K. [ed.], 1991, Entertaining Australia: An Illustrated History, Sydney: Currency Press.

Brodsky, I., 1963, Sydney Takes the Stage, Sydney: Old Sydney Free Press.

Churchward, L.G., 1978, Performing Arts Yearbook of Australia 1978, Showcast Publications, Mosman, New South Wales.

Hall, H. and Cripps, A. J., 1996, The Romance of the Sydney Stage, Sydney: Currency Press in association with the National Library of Australia.

Irvin, E., 1971, Theatre Comes to Australia, Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.

Irvin, E., 1985, Dictionary of the Australian Theatre 1788-1914, Sydney: Hale and Iremonger.

Jordan, R., 2002, The Convict Theatres of Early Australia, 1788-1840. Sydney: Currency House.

Kirby-Smith, V., 1969, The Development of Australian Theatre & Drama, PhD Thesis, Duke University, Vol 1.

Lebovic, J. [ed.], 1998, Australian Theatrical Posters, Sydney: Josef Lebovic Gallery.

Love, H. [ed.], 1984, The Australian Stage: A Documentary History, Sydney: New South Wales University Press.

Love, H., 1981, The Golden Age of Australian Opera: WS Lyster & his Companies 1861-1880, Sydney: Currency Press.

McGuire, P. with Arnott, E. and McGuire, F. M., 1948, The Australian Theatre: An Abstract and Brief Chronicle in Twelve Parts with Characteristic Illustrations, Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Parsons, P. [ed] , 1995, Companion to Theatre in Australia. Sydney: Currency Press Pty Ltd in association with Cambridge University Press.

Pask, E., 1979, Enter the Colonies Dancing: A History of Dance in Australia, 1835-1940. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Porter, H., 1965, Stars of Australian Stage & Screen, Adelaide: Rigby Limited.

Thorne, R., 1971, Theatre Buildings in Australia to 1905: From the Time of the First Settlement to the Arrival of Cinema, Two volumes. Sydney: Architectural Research Foundation, University of Sydney


Waterhouse, R., 1990, From Minstrel Show to Vaudeville: The Australian Popular Stage, 1788-1914, Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.

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Books - Australian history View sources

Askew, J. 1857, A Voyage to Australia and New Zealand, London: Simpkin Marshall and Co.

Bambrick, S. [ed], 1994, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Australia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bell, P. & Bell, R., 1993, Implicated: The United States in Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Blainey, G., 1982, The Tyranny of Distance: How Distance Shaped Australia's History, Melbourne: Macmillan. Revised edition.

Boxall, G., 1974 [repr], The Story of the Australian Bushrangers, Sydney: Penguin Books.

Brown, R., 1986, Collins Milestones in Australian History: 1788 to the Present, Sydney: Collins.

Burke, D., 1991, Road through the Wilderness: The story of the Transcontinental Railway, The first great work of Australia's Federation, Sydney: UNSW Press.

Cannon, M., 1971, Who's Master? Whose Man? Australia in the Victorian Age: Volume 1, Melbourne: Currey O Neil.

Cannon, M., 1973, Life in the Country. Australia in the Victorian Age: Volume 2, South Melbourne: Thomas Nelson Australia Ltd.

Cannon, M., 1973, Life in the Country: Australia in the Victorian Age Vol 2. Melbourne: Thomas Nelson , Australia, Limited.

Cannon, M., 1991, Old Melbourne Town Before the Gold Rush, Main Ridge: Loch Haven Books.

Cusack, F., 1973, Bendigo: A History, Melbourne: William Heinemann Australia Pty Ltd.

Finn, E. [Garryowen], 1888, The Chronicles of Early Melbourne 1835-1852: Historical, Anecdotal and Personal, Melbourne: Fergusson and Mitchell.v Fitzgerald, S., 1992, Sydney: 1842-1992, Sydney: Hale and Iremonger.

Ford, W. and F. [ed], 1851, Sydney Commercial Directory for the Year 1851, Sydney: W. and F. Ford.

Gibbney, H.J. & Smith, A.G., 1987, A Biographical Register 1788-1939: Notes from the Name Index of the Australian Dictionary of Biography , Two volumes,, Canberra: Australian Dictionary of Biography.

Hartwell, R.M., 1954, The Economic Development of Van Diemens Land, 1820-1850. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

Heaton, J. H., 1879, Australian Dictionary of Dates & Men of the Time containing The History of Australasia from 1642 to Date, Printed by authority of the Government of New South Wales. London: SW Silver & Co.

Hoad, J.L., 1986, Hotels and Publicans in South Australia 1836-1984, Adelaide: Australian Hotels Association/Gould Books.

Hood, J., 1843, Australia and The East: Being a Journal Narrative of a Voyage to New South Wales in an Emigrant Ship with a Residence of Some Months in Sydney and the Bush and the Route Home by Way of India and Egypt in Years 1841 and 1842, London: John Murray.

Hurst, J., 1918, Reminiscences of the Pioneer Days in New South Wales, in Journal of the Wagga Wagga and District Historical Society, 1968, no 1, pp 24-46.

Kennedy, M. J., 1992, Hauling the Loads: A History of Australia's Working Horses and Bullocks, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

Molony, J., 1984, Eureka, Melbourne: Penguin Books Australia Pty Limited.

Morris, S., 1992, Wagga Wagga: A History, Wagga Wagga: The Council of the City of Wagga Wagga.

Pattison, J. G., 1939, Battlers Tales of Early Rockhampton, Melbourne: Fraser & Jenkenson Pty Limited.

Pearl, C., 1970, Sydney Revels: The Eighteen Fifties of Bacchus, Cupid and Momus by Charles Adam Corbyn, Sydney: Ure Smith.

Ramsland, J., 1987, The Struggle Against Isolation: A History of the Manning Valley, North Sydney: Library of Australian History, in association with Greater Taree City Council.

Rickard, J., 1988, Australia: A Cultural History, Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited.

Robson, L. L., 1983, A History of Tasmania. Volume 1: Van Diemens Land from the Earliest Times to 1855, Melbourne, Oxford University Press.

Rolls, E., 1981, A Million Wild Acres, Melbourne: Penguin Books Australia Ltd.

Scott, G., 1958, Sydney's Highways of History, Melbourne: Georgian House.

Serle, G., 1977, The Golden Age: A History of the Colony of Victoria 1851-1861, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

Shennan, M. R., 1995, The 1855 Ovens Election and the Golden Horseshoes, Melbourne: The author.

Swan, K., 1970, A History of Wagga Wagga, Sydney: Hogbin Poole , Printers, Pty Limited.

Twopenny, R.E.N. 1973, Town Life in Australia, Sydney: Penguin Books Australia Ltd.

Vamplew, W. & Stoddart, B. [eds.], 1994, Sport in Australia: A Social History, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Vamplew, W. [ed.], 1987, Australians: Historical Statistics, Sydney: Fairfax, Syme and Weldon Associates.

von Guerard, E., c.1853, A Pioneer of the 50s: Leaves from the Journal of an Australian Digger by EvG, Unpublished manuscript in the Dixson Library, Sydney.

Walker, R. B., 1966, Old New England: A History of the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales 1818-1900, Sydney: Sydney University Press.

Wannan, W. F., 1970, Australian Folklore: A Dictionary of Lore, Legends & Popular Allusions, Melbourne: Landsdown Press.

Ward, R., 1958, The Australian Legend, Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Whitelock, D., 1985, Adelaide: From Colony to Jubilee, a Sense of Difference, Adelaide: Savvas Publishing.

Woods, C., 1985, Beechworth: A Titan's Field, Melbourne: Hargreen Publishing Co.

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Books - British circus history View sources

Astley, P., 1804, Astley's Projects In The Management Of The Horse; Rendering It Calm On The Road In Harness & c. Such Acquirements May Prevent Dreadful Accidents. Being An Abridgement Of His Popular And Most Valuable Book Of Equestrian education; To Which Is Prefixed Many Excellent Remedies For The Diseases In Horses, & c. London: T.Burton.

Bostock, E. M., 1927, Menageries, Circuses and Theatres, London: Chapman and Hall, Limited.

Cochran, C.B., 1925, The Secrets of a Showman , London: William Heinemann.

Demoriane, H., 1989, The Tight Rope Walker, London: Secker and Warburg.

Frost, T. 1876, Circus Life and Circus Celebrities, London: Tinsley Brothers.

Frost, T., 1874, The Old Showmen & the Old London Fairs. London: Tinsley Brothers.

M. Kwint , 1995,. Astley's Amphitheatre & the Early Circus in England, 1768-1830. University of Oxford, Ph.D


M.W. Disher , 1942,. Fairs, Circuses & Music Halls. London: William Collins.

Manning-Sanders, R., 1952. The English Circus, London Werner Laurie.

Saxon, A. H., 1968, Enter Foot and Horse: A History of Hippodrama in England and France, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Saxon, A. H., 1978, The Life & Art of Andrew Ducrow & The Romantic Age of English Circus, Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books.

Starsmore, I., 1975, English Fairs, London: Thames and Hudson.

Stoddart, H., 2000, Rings of Desire, Manchester: Manchester University Press

Turner, J. M., 1995, Victorian Arena: The Performers, A Dictionary of British Circus Biography, Volume 1, Formby: Lingdales Press.

Tuttle, G.P., 1972, The History of the Royal Circus, Equestrian & Philharmonic Academy 1782-1816. Tufts University, Ph.D.

Tyrwhitt-Drake, G., 1946, The English Circus and Fairground, London: Methuen and Co Ltd.

Wild, S. 1888, The Original, Complete and Only Authentic Story of Old Wilds: A Nursery of Strolling Players and the Celebrities Who Appeared There, London: G. Vickers.

Wykes, A., 1977, Circus! An Investigation into What Makes the Sawdust Fly, London: Jupiter Books Ltd.

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Books - British social history View sources

Chesney, K., 1970, The Victorian Underworld, Melbourne: Penguin Books Australia Ltd.

Cole, G.D.H. & Postgate, R., 1968, The Common People 1746-1946, London: Methuen and Co Ltd.

Cromie, R. [ed.], 1971, Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue: A Dictionary of Buckish Slang, University Wit and Pickpocket Eloquence, Northbridge: Digest Books Inc.

Cullingford, B., 2000, British Chimney Sweeps: Five Centuries of Chimney Sweeping, Sussex: The Book Guild Ltd.

Mackie, C., 1901, Norfolk Annals: A Chronological Record of Remarkable Events in the Nineteenth Century. Compiled from the Files of the Norfolk Chronicle, 1801-1900, Volume One. Norwich: Norfolk Chronicle Office.

Mayhew, H., 1996, London Characters and Crooks, London: The Folio Society.

Quennell, P. [ed.], 1951, Mayhew's London, London: Bracken Books.

Woodward, L., 1962, The Age of Reform 1815-1870, Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

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Books - British entertainment View sources

Howard, D., 1970, London Theatres and Music Halls 1850-1950, London: The Library Association.

Morley, H., 1859, Memoirs of Bartholomew Fair, London: Chapman and Hall.

Scott, H., 1946, The Early Doors: Origins of the Music Hall, Wakefield: EP Publishing Ltd.

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Books - Contemporary circus View sources

Bolton, R., 1987, New Circus, Caloustre Gulbenkian Foundation, London.

Bolton, R., 1999, Circus as Education, Australasian Drama Studies, no. 35, October, pp. 9-18.

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Books - Popular culture & mass entertainment View sources

Bouissac, P., 1976, Circus and Culture: A Semiotic Approach, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Briggs, A., 1960, Mass Entertainment: The Origins of a Modern Industry. Adelaide: The Griffin Press.

Cunningham, H, 1980, Leisure in the Industrial Revolution. London: Croom-Helm.

Golby, J. M. and Purdue, A. W., 1999, The Civilisation of the Crowd: Popular Culture in England, 1750-1900, Stroud: Sutton Publishing Limited. Revised edition.

Judd, M., 1983, "The Oddest Combination of Town & Country: Popular Culture & the London Fairs, 1800-1860" in Leisure in Britain by James K. Walton & James Walvin , eds, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Malcolmson, R.W., 1973, Popular Recreations in English Society, 1700-1850. London: Cambridge University Press.

Schama, S., 1996, Landscape & Memory. London: Fontana Press.

Storch, R.D., [ed], Popular Culture & Customs in 19th Century England. London: Croom Helm Ltd.

Swingewood, A., 1998, Cultural theory and the problem of modernity. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

Teo, H.M. & White, R., 2003, Cultural History in Australia, Sydney: UNSW Press.

Throsby, D., 2001, Economics & Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Williams, R., 1961, Culture and Society 1780-1950, London: Penguin Books.

Williams, R., 1976, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture & Society. Glasgow: Fontana

Williams, R., 1989, The Politics of Modernism: Against the New Conformists. London: Verso.

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Books - World circus history View sources

Anon., 1977, Le Grand Livre Du Cirque, Two Volumes, Bibliotheque des Arts, Geneva.

Croft-Cooke, R. & Meadmore, W. S., nd, The Sawdust Ring, Odhams Press Limited, Long Acre, London, n.d.

Croft-Cooke, R. and Cotes, P., 1976, Circus: A World History, Sydney: Ure Smith.

Speaight, G., 1980, A History of the Circus, London: The Tantivy Press.

Toole-Stott, R., 1958, Circus & Allied Arts: A World Bibliography, Four volumes, Derby: Harpur & Sons.

Hippisley Coxe, A., 1980, A Seat at the Circus, London: The Macmillan Press Ltd.

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Other sources View sources

Boase, F., 1900, Modern English Biography, Six Volumes, London: Truro, Netherton and Worth, 1892-1921.

Brackertz, N., 1997, Glorious Success, Triumphant Reception: A History of Burton's National Circus and The Emergence of the Circus in Australia, Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in the Department of History, Faculty of Arts, University of Melbourne.

Downes, P., 1975, Shadows on the Stage: Theatre in New Zealand - The First 70 Years, Dunedin: John McIndoe.

Frank, H.A., 1910, A Vagabond Journey Around the World, New York: The Century Company.

Grut, M., n.d., The History of Ballet in South Africa, Cape Town: Human and Rousseau.

Harnell, P., 1951, The Oxford Companion to the Theatre, London: Oxford University Press.

Hayes, M. H. 1894, Among Men and Horses, London: T. Fisher Unwin.

Martin, M. Marizles Martin: Her Reminiscences, John & Mabel Ringling Museum of Art, The State Art Museum of Florida, Sarasota, File 1100:35.

St Leon, M. Card Index: National Library of Australia, Ms 5600

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